mercoledì, ottobre 31, 2007

martedì, ottobre 30, 2007

Madrid, the new Wing of Prado Museum

Madrid, the new Wing of Prado Museum


















The extension of Madrid's great museum, which opens today, involved rebuilding a 16th-century cloister, reports Ellis Woodman
Over the past 30 years, almost every one of the world's foremost metropolitan art galleries has been extended to create extra exhibition space while providing the art-going public with all the education rooms, restaurants and retail opportunities that it increasingly expects.
One notable latecomer to this party has been the gallery that many consider to be the greatest of them all, Madrid's Prado. It has not been for want of trying.
In 1995, it staged an architectural competition to find a design for an extension. More than 700 schemes were submitted, but the jury ultimately had to concede that there simply wasn't enough land available to accommodate its brief satisfactorily. The competition was declared void and the gallery set about trying to secure more space. There weren't many possibilities.
The Prado presents a 650ft frontage to one of Madrid's most heavily trafficked avenues and is book-ended by an essential entrance courtyard at one end and by the sacrosanct Royal Botanical Gardens at the other. The only real opportunity to grow, therefore, was to the rear. The gallery owned a sliver of land between its building and the road that runs along its rear face, but it wasn't enough.
The only way to accommodate all the facilities that were required was to tunnel under the road, making a connection to a new building that would stand on the far side.
There was one obvious place where this could be done – on a plot owned by the neighbouring monastery of San Jerónimo el Real. The gallery reached an agreement that it would buy the land and rehouse the displaced monks in a new building to be constructed alongside.
There was just one problem: a large part of the site was occupied by a 16th-century cloister. It was in an extremely dilapidated state but, none the less, it was a listed monument.
The gallery held a second competition with the stipulation that the cloister would have to be incorporated within the new building. It was won by the grand old man of Spanish architecture, 70-year-old Rafael Moneo. Today, 12 years after the Prado first embarked on the project of building an extension, his scheme is to be opened by the King and Queen of Spain.
The challenge faced by Moneo was significantly compounded by the fact that the steeply sloping ground at the back of the gallery had led to the cloister being constructed on a massive platform built into the hill.
His scheme has involved the radical measure of temporarily dismantling the cloister so that the platform could be demolished and the new building constructed in its place. The cloister was then meticulously reconstructed in exactly its original location and the new building extended upwards to engulf it on two sides.
From the street, therefore, the cloister is entirely hidden from view. What we see is the new structure, built from the unusually small bricks with pencil-thin mortar joints that are so characteristic of Madrid's architecture. The building has something of the appearance of a small palazzo, boasting a windowless, almost fortified lower level and an expansive glazed loggia above.
Moneo's first proposal was for a much more abstract treatment with none of the classical overtones of the final design, but the idea of building next to the 16th-century church proved extremely contentious and the change of approach served as something of a concession to those who opposed it.
The new building houses a suite of temporary galleries beneath the cloister and ranges conservation facilities, offices and print rooms around it. By decanting these facilities from the old building it has been possible to return a significant area to its original use as exhibition space. The first exhibition to be staged in the temporary galleries is a show of the 19th-century art that has always been displayed in a separate institution, but which can now be integrated with the Prado's holdings.
Ultimately, the project might not rank among its architect's most spectacular works, but it answers an extraordinarily taxing set of requirements very persuasively and promises to have a transformative effect on the gallery. Most impressively, perhaps, there is very little about the finished building that suggests what a battle it has been to get it built.

mercoledì, ottobre 24, 2007

Astrohome

Few architects today have the finesse of Ben van Berkel. Working with his partner, Caroline Bos, the 50-year-old Amsterdam native has become one of a handful of designers whose approach, driven by a fascination with new computer-age technologies, has a touch of the prophetic. Of all of them, he has so far come closest to fulfilling the dream of a truly elastic world, one in which the boundaries between work and play, private and public life have all but melted away.
But in the Villa NM, the first project his Amsterdam-based firm, UNStudio, has completed in the United States, van Berkel combines this intellectual rigor with something new: a blend of play and eroticism that is a welcome relief from the puritanical tone that has infected the world of contemporary high culture.
Designed for a Russian client as a weekend house in Sullivan County, N.Y., the Villa NM conjures a tornado of images: Hudson River School paintings, garish Las Vegas casinos, ’70s kitsch and Russian fairy tales. Somehow van Berkel manages to fuse these images into a coherent architectural vision, one that allows the mind to drift through different worlds without ever becoming unhinged. The result is confirmation, if any more was needed, that van Berkel is an architect who is now hitting his full creative stride.
The client helped. A short, wiry man with penetrating eyes, Leo Tsimmer grew up in the Soviet city of Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), a grim industrial wasteland at the base of the Ural Mountains. He brings to mind the kind of maverick spirit that once defined the American West: a healthy willingness to take risks coupled with a disdain for the values of the crusty Old World establishment.
Before the fall of the Soviet Union, Tsimmer moved to Moscow, where he quickly joined a new breed of scrappy capitalists then reshaping Russia. He organized Moscow’s first rave and even opened a chain of American-style doughnut shops. Eventually, he made his way to the United States, where he expanded his business empire by exporting commodities like frozen chickens to Russia at a time when the Soviet economy was in free fall and grocery shelves in the Russian capital were often bare.
“I’m a hard-core capitalist,” Tsimmer said, standing in front of his new house in a dark flowered shirt, worn jeans and flip-flops. “But I still believe in socialism as a utopia. I just don’t know anyone who can get us there.”
Like any upwardly mobile New Yorker, Tsimmer soon began thinking about building a country house for himself; his wife, Angelika Lee; and their two kids. He found a 13-acre plot in a quiet corner of Sullivan County, a two-hour drive northwest of the city, and a few months later he spotted a model of van Berkel’s Mobius House while wandering through a show on the design of contemporary houses at the Museum of Modern Art.
“I didn’t know much about contemporary architecture then, but I loved the house,” Tsimmer said, remembering the moment. “I called the architect’s office in Amsterdam and asked for a meeting. A month later I handed him a check.”
For his part, van Berkel still seems slightly shocked describing the brusqueness of the encounter. “We met at a hotel bar, and we started to play with this idea of a Russian dacha,” he told me recently over drinks in Amsterdam. “He gave me a check on the spot. He was an unusual client. He was not afraid to experiment. Super-open-minded.”
With a little imagination, in fact, you can picture the house in the Russian countryside. To get to it, you drive past miles of rolling hills scattered with the occasional old barn and cheap one-story houses clad in vinyl siding. Eventually, you turn down a bumpy dirt road, winding up to the top of a hill surrounded by pine and birch trees with a view of undulating mountains.
The Villa NM stands atop this landscape, resting amid a dewy lawn with the coiled energy of a cobra getting ready to strike. Sealed inside a taut skin made of earth-colored spray-on concrete and mirrored glass, its rectangular form twists at midpoint, then lifts up at one end to form a canopy over a small carport.
As you circle to the back, the form twists again, this time to trace the slope of a hill. A series of decks step down to a pool, their smooth marble surfaces a sly tribute to the famous floating planes of Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona Pavilion.
The meaning of these contortions becomes clear only from the inside. An informal entry leads from the carport into the kitchen, whose back wall is made of polycarbonate panels embedded with softly colored L.E.D. lights. From here, the room narrows into a funnel-like passageway that twists violently to connect the two ends of the house: a floor twists around to become a wall; a wall turns into the ceiling. Broad steps cascade down through this space from the living area above.
This is the house’s connective tissue, and its elastic form conjures multiple metaphors: the muscular structure of an alien creature, a piece of toffee, a birth canal. But why mince words? It’s simply one of the most gorgeous private staircases in America. As you reach the top and enter the living room, a sweeping view of the mountains opens up through bronze tinted glass. The sequence then switches back, with a second set of stairs leading up to the bedrooms and a decadent marble-clad bathroom.
What’s most striking about the interiors, however, is their mutability. Rooms appear and then disappear from view. Spaces stretch and contract. The graceful flow of movement through the center of the house contrasts with quieter corners at either end.
To some, this may be a scary statement about our current era, where the boundaries between private and public life have less and less meaning. But it is also an attack against a central tenet of early Modernism: the association — now seemingly so naïve — of transparency and light with a healthier, morally pure society.
As van Berkel put it: “You could never hide yourself in these places — in Mies’s Farnsworth house, for example. That was a mistake of Modernism. People need places to hide from each other, too. You need everything.”
That suspicion of Modernism’s dogmatic streak is underscored by a number of playful touches. A living room fireplace, clad in brass, brings to mind a sophisticated take on the swinging ’70s; speakers are set in the pool so that you can listen to disco while frolicking underwater. (Tsimmer claims this last detail was inspired by childhood memories of watching synchronized swimmers perform on Soviet television.)
Best of all is the play of reflection and transparency in the windows, which are made of the same bronze-tinted glass used in old Las Vegas casinos. Standing in the living room on a bright afternoon, the glass gives the surrounding landscape a glorious bronze glow. But as the sun sets, the glass becomes mirrored. The landscape slowly recedes from view and you see yourself reflected in glimmering bronze. At the same time, you become suddenly aware that people can gaze in from outside, giving the house a voyeuristic frisson.
Such refinements are a testament to van Berkel’s maturity. He began his architecture career in the mid-1980s working for Zaha Hadid, who was then known for her dynamic, formal language, followed by a brief stint in the office of Santiago Calatrava, a designer known for flamboyant feats of engineering. These seemingly contradictory experiences have obviously served him well: his own architectural voice demonstrates both a willingness to explore uncharted conceptual territory and a deep understanding of how things are put together, giving his work a substance that is rare even among his most talented peers.
His first significant civic project, a bridge completed in 1996 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, is reminiscent of Calatrava’s early work. The contrast between its towering wishbone-shaped pier and the lightness of the roadway creates an exquisite tension. It’s the kind of structural daring that makes Calatrava fans gush.
But while Calatrava has gone on to make increasingly flamboyant, even self-indulgent works, his protégé’s designs have become more taut and precise. In 1998, van Berkel caught the attention of many in the architecture world with the completion of the 1998 Mobius House, whose faceted concrete and glass interior was organized in a kind of elaborate figure eight. The house, which is located in Het Gooi in the Netherlands, had some of the overwrought detailing typical of a young architectural talent brimming with ideas — every handrail seems designed to make a major architectural statement. But it was also an expression of a wonderfully nuanced mind.
Taking his cue from the music of modern composers like Schoenberg and Boulez, van Berkel found that by using a limited palette of three angles — of 4, 7 and 11 degrees — he could produce a remarkably complex composition that nonetheless retained an underlying clarity. “It was a way to create a more disciplined model,” he said. “And I think it also gives the project a calmness that you might not notice at first.”
This compositional rigor was coupled with a social mission: to create a more elastic relationship between private and communal space. The owners’ respective work spaces, for example, anchor the two ends of the house, while the living area is located at the point where the various pathways through the house intersect, so that they are constantly drifting back and forth between the two.
By the time of the completion of the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart, Germany, early last year, van Berkel was a more confident talent. Conceived as a finely honed machine, the museum is a bold reworking of the rotunda of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Guggenheim Museum.
Its complex, interlocking spirals — a system of ramps that lead down through galleries stocked with sleek cars — revealed the same preoccupation with complex geometries as his earlier work, but with an astounding level of refinement.
Unfortunately, van Berkel has had less success in the United States. In 1999 he was included in a competition sponsored by the Canadian Center for Architecture to come up with proposals for the development of a vast site extending west from Madison Square Garden to the Hudson River, but nothing came of it. A year later, he was awarded a commission for the design of a major addition to the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford. The design featured an ingenious system of intertwining ramps that connected several existing 19th-century buildings around a central court. But the museum’s board and directorship changed, and it died.
The Villa NM is a taste of what we’ve been missing. The seeming ease with which van Berkel handles such a complex formal language makes you eager to see the discoveries that are yet to come.
In the end, however, the house’s most delicious feature may be the way it playfully mocks our cultural pretensions. In a society driven by rampant careerism and painfully averse to risk — especially the risk of being labeled gauche — the house is a monument to what can happen when you let go of inhibitions. It proves that the slickness of the computer age does not necessarily have to lead us to a world sanitized of sensual charms.









venerdì, ottobre 05, 2007

From Victorian water tower to hot property

Buyers who hanker for the high life will love this Plumstead property. A converted Victorian water tower, it has amazing views over the capital - and quite a bit of style, says Ginetta Verdrickas
Just two miles from Blackheath, in less fashionable Plumstead, south-east London, a converted Victorian water tower has recently come onto the market, attracting potential buyers and passers-by who are curious to see inside this local landmark.Behind its red-brick façade, enclosed by high walls and a security gate, the tower's exterior gives few hints of what lies inside. A product of the late Victorian drive to bring clean water to the surrounding area, today the tower is being marketed as a super-smart four-bedroom home. With two doors to choose from, finding the entrance was a challenge but it's well worth coming in through the front to get the full effect. An unassuming door opens into an impressive double height hallway where you'll find a lift to take you directly to the rooms contained within the tower. The energetic might prefer to climb the original stone staircase where exposed brickwork produces a castle-like atmosphere but, be warned, the tower contains eight storeys, negating any need for a home gym.
Each floor holds one room only: the largest measures just over 12ft long by 10ft wide, and two of the property's bedrooms are housed within the tower. On the second floor is the study, with its hand-built furniture making the best use of the unusual space. An impressively vast bathroom, complete with Philippe Starck fittings, occupies the entire fourth floor. And, while it must feel disconcerting to anyone sitting in the stand-alone bath and imagining surprise guests disgorging from the lift, it's reassuring to find that the lift can be disabled from any of the rooms to ensure privacy.But if any aspect of the property could prompt agent hyperbole it is the tower's crowning glory, the glass observatory. Unsuitable for the vertiginous, the far-reaching views are best enjoyed from the balcony, which wraps around the tower. Indeed, if one feature alone could sell this unusual property, the views surely will. The British Telecom tower, the Swiss Re building ("The Gherkin") and Wembley Stadium are all clearly visible. You can look out over ancient woodland, Oxleas Wood, and another water tower, still in use, towards the distant horizon. The skyline is particularly impressive at night. City Airport is only eight miles away so keen plane-spotters will have great views of take-offs and landings. The observatory has been fashioned into a cosy living space complete with cocktail area, plasma screen TV and low sofas, making it the ultimate pulling pad to entice any damsel keen on letting her hair down à la Rapunzel. For owner Alan Rowell, who developed the tower as a commercial venture, this is his favourite spot: "It's just so relaxing and is a great chill-out room." Alan Rowell took on the tower conversion after being inspired by an architect's vision, but admits that it was not the most financially successful of projects."It has been challenging and difficult but it's also been a lot of fun and I'm really proud to have done it," he says. Tall thin towers don't necessarily make the best living spaces or the most viable conversions. But this one benefits from a two-storey building attached to the main tower by a glass walkway. "The idea was always to combine the very old with the new. I can imagine people living mainly in the additional structure and using the quirky rooms in the tower for entertaining and guests," says Rowell.The kitchen and main living space occupy the ground floor, with double height windows looking out onto a Japanese-style water feature which encircles the property. Two more bedrooms are also housed in this part of the property including the master suite with hand-built, walk-in, his-and-hers closets. The specifications are very up to the minute, with sleek, hi-tech features that include a Lutron lighting system and electrically operated curtains, blinds and shutters. But the tower also retains period detail such as exposed brickwork and wrought-iron railings in the stairwell. Initially put on the market for "a bullish £2 million", selling agents John Payne believe that the more realistic selling price of £1,395,000 will now lure a buyer: "To be honest it's a terribly difficult house to value, but if you look at the quality of the fixtures and fittings then it's enormously good value," says agent Richard O'Toole.Viewers so far include a "mixed bag of footballers and families". Keen to dissuade too many sightseers who, he accepts, simply want to see inside a building with a high curiosity factor, Richard O'Toole believes the property will appeal to a city boy from Canary Wharf - which is well within view from the tower's observatory."It will probably go to someone who can see it from their office window," he says. "I believe it could make the ultimate bachelor pad."